Another web article on psychogeography? Why not! In the run-up to a highly promising weekend of street theatre, surrealism, vintage markets and sacred geometry in Glasgow here is a quick look at the history of psychogeography and, more importantly, what it can do for you.
What is psychogeography?
Psychogeography is an ambiguous, debated and occasionally derided concept that in the last few decades has gone through cycles of discovery, rediscovery, acclaim, pretension, caricature and backlash.
The most illustrative definition I have read is by Joseph Hart who describes it as “a whole toy box full of playful, inventive strategies for exploring cities… just about anything that takes pedestrians off their predictable paths and jolts them into a new awareness of the urban landscape.” Its main device for exploration is aimless, drifting ‘derives’ or wanderings through the landscape.
The history of psychogeography
Modern psychogeography was first outlined by the political theorist Ivan Chtcheglov in an influential essay, Formulary for a New Urbanism. After his fall-out with the Lettrists in 1955 psychogeography was further developed by radical avant-garde mid-20th century movements such as Situationist International (SI) and the Lettrist International who were heavily influenced by Marxism, surrealism, Dadaism and revolutionary architecture. Marxist intellectual and SI founder Guy Debord and others gave psychogeography much intellectual theory and discourse.
Debord’s biographer Vincent Kaufman however points out that psychogeography might have been a bit of a situationist wind-up launched out of “an art of conversation and drunkenness, and everything leads us to believe that Debord excelled at both.” In other words it was born out of drunken rants and some might say it still has a tendency for psycho babble
The situationists developed urban wandering from the concept of the flaneur, French for stroller, and the man of the crowd. Flaneur evokes a 19th century Parisian act of strolling as something of leisure, dandyism and literature, found, for example, in the poetry of Charles Baudelaire. The man in the crowd is more associated with the London-based writing of Edgar Allan Poe and Thomas de Quincy. Other British writers used gothic, romantic and occult elements to explore urban landscape such as William Blake and Arthur Machen.
For some it goes even further back. An academic research team from the University of West Scotland now traces psychogeography 300 years back to the romantic poets as well as Jean-Jacques Rousseau. In his article another place called nowhere Darran Anderson mentions that early psychogeography can be found in Irish pre-Christian literature and is known as Dindsenchas meaning ‘lore of places’.
Since its early avant-garde political origins psychogeography’s ambiguity has allowed it to explore diverse themes and concepts including sacred geometry, politics, surveillance, graffiti, personal resonance, secret history, occult, forgotten art, lost characters, architecture and the psychic imprint of trauma in an area influencing its atmosphere down the years – a much used example by writers are the Jack the Ripper murders in Whitechapel although the area itself in reality has much changed since that period.
Art and writing continue to be defined or labelled psychogeographic, often in retrospective and without the original intention of the writer or artist. Nonetheless an extraordinary diversity of films, comics, writing and music now belong, whether intended or not, to the psychogeography canon. The most famous writing can be found in the books of London writers Iain Sinclair, Peter Ackroyd and Will Self. Ackroyd’s Hawksmoor for example explores the link between dark Satanism and churches built by the architect Nicholas Hawksmoor although commentators will point out that there is no historical evidence for this. Sinclair is not to everyone’s taste but is in my opinion simply one of the great British writers and, along with Dickens, a master of London writing.
However, it’s not just about London, books or the urban landscape. In Edgelands Michael Symmons Roberts and Paul Farley explore the uneasy areas that exist between urban and rural such as canals, quarry pits and piers. Robert Macfarlane journeys through wild places and mixes myth, memory and landscape. The Psychogeographical Commission create high-concept recordings based on derive journeys and suggest listening to suitable music that, during a wander, will allow the street noises to infiltrate and fuse with it.
Bloggers are unearthing some fascinating material, recording their experiments and writing about their experiences. The Fife Psychogeographical Collective digs up fascinating lore and connections in rural and urban Fife, a kingdom mostly bounded by the sea and strewn with the echoes of history and rural secrets and debris of industrialisation. In another place called nowhere Darran Anderson uses a photo of nowhere and skillfully peels back hidden layers rich in history and personal association.
Of course in a modern age technology, maps, apps and GPS location are also being utilised and created for the active psychogeographer, although some would argue that this is contrary to the original true spirit of the movement.
What psychogeography can do for you
Perhaps everyone and everything is too easily labelled psychogeographic these days and certainly it is ripe for satire. However, the brilliance of psychogeography is that anyone can be a wandering flaneur, it does not need to end up as serious literature or a blog piece and everyone knows walking is good for soul, body and mind.
All it requires is an open mind, curiosity, a taste for the pleasure of a purposeless stroll and an eye to look and see. I used to play a game with my daughters where the direction of street walks were determined with the toss of a coin, this was inspired by a friend who used to eye London from the top deck of buses also arbitrarily decided by the coin. I never considered this psychogeographic at the time but both are games that can certainly be described as such. Often I wonder when walking the dog whether her random park wanderings are guided by principles of canine psychogeography based on smell, favourite trees for sniffing, squirrels and the leftovers of student barbecues.
Psychogeography’s political overtones, its potential playfulness, Hart’s toy box for street connections, will allow you, the subversive wander, to reclaim and love your landscape, relish new discoveries and resist ‘banalisation’. It’s investigating your personal and emotional relationship with your landscape and the life of your streets.
Cynics would boil it down to: just go for a walk and get some fresh air lad!
Whatever the case have a go and enjoy yourself! Grab a greyhound if you have to.
“Unfold a street map of London, place a glass, rim down, anywhere on the map, and raw round its edge. Pick up the map, go out into the city, and walk the circle, keeping as close as you can to the curve. Record the experience as you go, in whatever medium you favour: film, photography, manuscript, tape. Catch the textual run-off of the streets; the graffiti, the branded litter, the snatches of conversation. Cut for sign. Log the data-stream. Be alert to the happenstance of metaphors, watch for visual rhymes, coincidences, analogies, family resemblance, the changing moods of the street. Complete the circle, and the record ends. Walking makes for content; footage for footage.” http://lostlondon.org.uk/pages/about-the-the-lost-london-project
Coming soon: psychogeography and sacred geometry in Glasgow (if the weekend works out).
24 thoughts on “Psychogeography and how it can help you”
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Awesome! I love to do this, and never realized it was “a thing.” I find myself taking more photos of pathways, streets, and buildings, among other things, than anything else! Very interesting post!
Thanks sweetsound – glad you found it interesting. It is all around us and we were probably all doing it before someone defined it!
This is amazing. I have to come back and read this again
Thanks for the mention Alex! Have always thought that kids are natural psychogeographers but yes dogs too. Cheers.
For me the best thing about psychogeography is that it’s profoundly democratic. You don’t need to have an Oxbridge degree, you don’t need to spend any money doing it. In fact, all you really need is a pair of shoes and an imagination. Even though some of it may be tongue-in-cheek, there still remains something strangely rebellious about the flaneur, strolling aimlessly through cities which are increasingly designed only with shopping, high finance and luxury real estate in mind.
I entirely agree Grzeg – and it’s personal to you as well.
It’s not just the shopping angle as well. I read somewhere that in London zones of security and streets are increasingly semi-privatised with powers to prevent undesirables working down them. Not sure if that is scare-mongering or not (I shall have to try and find that article again) but psychogeography is quiet resistance to all this.
I like this one as it discusses the weekend activity of choice for my lady love and I. Instead of using a cup to mark an area, we simply say to ourselves lets walk from North West London home. Although we use our iPhone map to guide us in the general direction, we tend to adopt a rough cut and weave walk path. I love the nooks and crannies of the city that you discover by accident. The great architectural buildings, tiny vintage bric a brac outlets that you would never find unless you stumble upon them. Exploring the random lanes and bars by the High Court, or ducking through the back passages behind Fleet Street that lead to Dr. Johnson’s house, and the graveyard of the Winchester Geese down a quiet side road near London Bridge. Right, where can I borrow a Greyhound??
London is great for that Twiddles and no matter how well I feel I know it there’s always more to discover and enjoy. It’s probably why psychogeography flourishes so well there and inspires so many writers. I love wandering round the Inns, especially at the weekend when they are deserted.
Glasgow is obviously not quite the same but having said that discovering a a lot more about it since I started this blog.
I limited myself with my wanders when I lived in Glasgow. Covered the same distances that I do in London but with various repeated circuits of the west end. We’ve discussed this in the past I’m sure, but I walked from my Mum’s in Blairdardie to the Burrell Collection a couple of years a go. A walk I had never done before and hadn’t planned to do even on that day. I kept on discovering new little lanes and pathways that took me in one direction, then another in a different way. The only carrot dangling in front of me encouraging me on was discovery or rediscovery of the city where I was born.
Received an interesting comment from @oldmapman
“Was with you till the Whitechapel example. What Jack the Ripper atmosphere! Had you talked about St Giles…”
It is a good point but Jack the Ripper and/or Whitechapel has been heavily exploited by psychogeographic writers such as Sinclair and Moore. These days Whitechapel is different and much gentrified while St Giles, despite its central London location, still resonates from the days when it was one of the worst slums in London with the notorious Rookery being depicted by Hogarth and featuring in Dicken’s excellent Bleak House. Last time I walked through St Giles a couple of junkies were shooting up in the church yard!
I’ve just arrived at your blog and read this – how strange that you published it 6 days before my own post on the same topic, with quite a number of the same references! I didn’t plagiarise, honest! But your article is very much more well informed than mine, and I enjoyed it. Thanks.
Actually duncommutin I really enjoyed your article and it put me onto Edgelands which I had not heard about before. In fact I think my article came out after yours so it’s rather the other way round – I burrowed some of your references!! Although I have over the years read Sinclair, etc. They are always the obvious ones in a general article about psychogeography.
No problem. I haven’t got as far as reading the book yet, but I’m looking forward to it.
Alex, I am so glad I read this. I love it. My first ever reblog… you must have done lots of research for this piece. fascinating.
Coincidentally, I loaned my copy of Hawksmoor to a friend in 1991. I just got it back and am now re-reading it
Hi Anastasia – many thanks for visiting and re-blogging this post! Glad you found it so interesting. Hope you enjoy Hawksmoor. There’s something satisfying about getting a book returned after so long and putting it back on the shelf.
Reblogged this on Anastasia Lennon and commented:
A most interesting article by Alex Cochrane. I love it!
Where the buffalo roam
The antidote to psychogeography
Sounds intriguing. I have added to my reading list. Is there a lot of hedonism involved?
Not a lot. Satire, wit and investigative derives feature however….
Excellent – I look forward to reading it once my current workload has settled a bit.
Oh wow. This is absolutely fascinating. I must do some further reading on it.
Thanks LaVagabonde – hope the further reading further enriches your own wanderings!
Reblogged this on francessgannon.